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[1] This paper is the full, comprehensively revised, but abridged version of a rough paper prepared for the Nairobi seminar. I thank Håkan Thörn and the Committee for the opportunity to think through these thoughts, and Jane Duncan, Henning Melber, Jan Aart Scholte, and some members of the audience whose names I forget for their comments and questions, which helped me sharpen my thinking and think through certain points.

[2] Waterman (November 2005).

[3] Committee on Civil Society Research, Sweden (nd, c.January 2007).

[4] Nimtz Jr (2000).

[5] For an ongoing and sometimes critical anthology of the role of civil organisations at a global level, see the Global Civil Society Yearbook produced by Mary Kaldor and her colleagues at the Centre for Global Governance at the London School of Economics. Most recently : Glasius, Kaldor, and Anheier, eds (2005).

[6] For a discussion of the influence of new conditions, see : Keck and Sikkink (1998); and : Nunes (November 2006 [2005]).

[7] Khagram, Riker, and Sikkink, eds (March 2002).

[8] See, for instance, Korten (1998).

[9] Scholte (January 2007).

[10] Sen (April 2001 [1975]).

[11] Wilmer (1993); especially ‘The Great Cause of Civilization’, Chapter 4, pp 95-126. Also : Churchill, W. (2004), and : Furniss (2000 [1992, 1995]).

[12] Datta Chowdhury, (1993), citing de Regt, A. (1986).

[13] Ibid.

[14] Shaw (nd), pp 1 and 3.

[15] For instance : Vieru (December 2006); or : Tripathi (August 2006).

[16] Das (January 2005).

[17] Butalia (January 2005); and : Menon and Bhasin (1998).

[18] For an early discussion of this stigmatisation, see : Sen (August 1984b). For a less pointed but more comprehensive discussion, see : Hardoy and Satterthwaite (1989).

[19] Nayyar and Court (June 2002).

[20] See, for instance : Alfred (2005). See also : Crosby (December 2006).

[21] I am aware of the very specific use of the term ‘uncivil’ in the North, by influential civil theorists, to mean what in India is popularly referred to as ‘anti-socials’; for instance, in Howell, J., and Pearce, P (1998). I urge those who use the term in this way to see it for its wider resonance, and to shift to using it in this way.

[22] For a discussion of this issue in a symbolically important situation at a very local level, the struggles for survival of hand rickshaw pullers in Calcutta (now Kolkata), see: Unnayan (July 1982).

[23] Sen (July-September 1998).

[24] For those interested, I develop these arguments somewhat in another paper : Sen (November 2002d).

[25] Childs (2003).

[26] Rikkilä and Sehm Patomäki, eds (2002); or to my own contribution to this volume : Sen (2002).

[27] For a first discussion of these dynamics, see : Sen (December 2004 [October 2004]). And for a detailed ethnographic discussion of a major transnational civil campaign at the World Bank, around the Narmada dams in India, see : Sen (December 1999).

[28] See, for instance : Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) (May 1996); and : Divakar Namala, P. (forthcoming [2007]).

[29] For a contemporary Dalit perspective on insurgent politics, see : Divakar Namala (forthcoming [2007]), as above. Paul Divakar is National Convenor of the NCDHR (National Campaign for Dalit Human Rights) in India.

[30] Martinez (January 2000).

[31] For a detailed discussion of these dynamics, see : Caruso (December 2004). [32] Caruso, 2004, as above.

[33] Daulatzai (December 2004).

[34] For a terse but comprehensive critical reflection on the Nairobi Forum by one of its organisers, including these dynamics, see : Oloo, O. (National Coordinator, Kenya Social Forum) (March 2007). For an archive of reflections on the Nairobi Forum, and on the WSF as a whole, see : (external link).

[35] Sen (January 2007); or for a more easily accessible but earlier version, Sen (March 2006).

[36] Sen (December 2004 [October 2004]).

[37] World Social Forum Organising Committee and World Social Forum International Council (June 2001).

[38] For a discussion in these terms of the WSF in India, see : Sen (2004c); and for a discussion of the ESF in London : Treanor (November 2002).

[39] Sen, J. (2004b).

[40] Sen, J. and Kumar, M., compilers, with Bond, P. and Waterman, P. (January 2007).

[41] As mentioned earlier, I have also found very similar trends in global civil alliance; as discussed in : Sen (December 1999), above.

[42] Muto (June 2004). For a discussion of this paper and its proposals, see : Sen (July 2005).

[43] Muto (June 2004), as above, pp 11 and 12.

[44] For a detailed discussion of the dynamics and politics of the representation of CBOs (community-based organisations, a UN term) on ‘national civil committees’ established towards democratising the preparations for and agenda of Habitat II, the second UN Conference on Human Settlements in 1996, see : Sen (June 1996a); and for the dynamics in a major transnational civil campaign : Sen (December 1999) – ‘A World to Win’, as above.

[45] Brecher, J., Costello, T., and Smith, B. (2000). The Global Civil Society Yearbook produced by the London School of Economics, as above, also tends to celebrate ‘global civil society’ as GfB, but in a carefully muted way. See, for instance, their covering letter to the 2006/7 Yearbook, as above.

[46] Segal (1995).

[47] Falk (1993a) and Falk (1997); and : Brecher, Costello, and Smith (2000), as above.

[48] Sen (May 2000d).

[49] Childs (2003), as above.

[50] A small contribution to this task of examining how change is taking place, and re-thinking ‘globalisation’, took place during a course I ran at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, during the Fall semester 2006, titled ‘Other Worlds, Other Globalisations’; for details, and in time the work of the course participants, see

[51] For a discussion of the emergence of a transnational capitalist class, see : Sklair, L. (1991) Sociology of the Global System, London: Harvester Wheatsheaf; and for a first exploration of its parallels in so-called ‘alternative globalisation’, see : Sklair, L. (March 2005).

[52] Point made in Hurl, C. (November 2006), referring to Wallerstein, I. (2006).